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Python计数模块Counter

本文主要介绍Python内置的Counter模块,尤其在计算对象的个数非常方便

先来看看源码对这个模块的说明

class Counter(dict):
    '''Dict subclass for counting hashable items.  Sometimes called a bag
    or multiset.  Elements are stored as dictionary keys and their counts
    are stored as dictionary values.
  ...
  '''

字典的子类,用于计算hashtable,有时被称为袋子或者多类型的字典。元素作为字典的键,元素个数作为字典的值。

   >>> c = Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba')  # count elements from a string

    >>> c.most_common(3)                # three most common elements
    [('a', 5), ('b', 4), ('c', 3)]
    >>> sorted(c)                       # list all unique elements
    ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
    >>> ''.join(sorted(c.elements()))   # list elements with repetitions
    'aaaaabbbbcccdde'
    >>> sum(c.values())                 # total of all counts
    15

    >>> c['a']                          # count of letter 'a'
    5
    >>> for elem in 'shazam':           # update counts from an iterable
    ...     c[elem] += 1                # by adding 1 to each element's count
    >>> c['a']                          # now there are seven 'a'
    7
    >>> del c['b']                      # remove all 'b'
    >>> c['b']                          # now there are zero 'b'
    0

    >>> d = Counter('simsalabim')       # make another counter
    >>> c.update(d)                     # add in the second counter
    >>> c['a']                          # now there are nine 'a'
    9

    >>> c.clear()                       # empty the counter
    >>> c
    Counter()

    Note:  If a count is set to zero or reduced to zero, it will remain
    in the counter until the entry is deleted or the counter is cleared:

    >>> c = Counter('aaabbc')
    >>> c['b'] -= 2                     # reduce the count of 'b' by two
    >>> c.most_common()                 # 'b' is still in, but its count is zero
    [('a', 3), ('c', 1), ('b', 0)]

常用的方法介绍

  • 拥有字典的访问方法
    由于c是字典的子类,因此继承了字典的访问删除等方法
>>> c = Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba') 
>>>  c.items()
dict_items([('b', 4), ('c', 3), ('a', 5), ('d', 2), ('e', 1)])
>>> c['a']
5
>>> c.get("a")
5
>>> c.keys()
dict_keys(['b', 'c', 'a', 'd', 'e'])
>>> c.values()
dict_values([4, 3, 5, 2, 1])
>>> c.pop("a")
5
>>> c.clear()

  • Counter 类独有方法
>>> c.most_common(3) # 最多的前三位
[('b', 4), ('c', 3), ('d', 2)]
>>> c
 Counter({'a': 5, 'b': 4, 'c': 3, 'd': 2, 'e': 1})
>>> c.update("abc")  # 更新计数器对象c 
>>> c
Counter({'a': 6, 'b': 5, 'c': 4, 'd': 2, 'e': 1})
>>> d = Counter("abc")
>>> c.update(d) # 可以更新counter 对象
>>> c
Counter({'a': 7, 'b': 6, 'c': 5, 'd': 2, 'e': 1})
>>> c.clear()
>>> c
Counter()