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不使用cli搭建angular项目

本文将从一个空目录开始搭建一个最小化可运行的完整angular项目。并且不依赖@angular/cli,纯手工配置webpack来实现。即花费巨大力气完成@angular/cli中的如下命令:

ng new angulectron
ng build --prod

初始化

初始化项目使用yarn init(或npm init)完成,最终得到包含单个package.json的项目。像这样:

mkdir angulectron && cd angulectron
yarn init
// 一路回车或细心输入配置

得到类似如下内容的package.json文件:

{
  "name": "angulectron",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "main": "index.js",
  "license": "MIT"
}

为了防止第一步太过简单,顺便我们再往里面添加一波依赖:

yarn add @angular/core @angular/common @angular/platform-browser @angular/platform-browser-dynamic @angular/compiler rxjs zone.js core-js

yarn add --dev @angular/compiler-cli webpack webpack-cli webpack-dev-server typescript@2.9.2

yarn add --dev html-webpack-plugin to-string-loader css-loader sass-loader raw-loader file-loader @ngtools/webpack @angular-devkit/build-optimizer uglifyjs-webpack-plugin mini-css-extract-plugin node-sass rimraf http-server
  • 第一波依赖是angular相关的几个依赖,已经足够最简单运行了
  • 第二波是大哥webpack还有干爹typescript。其中typescript必须指定2版本(目前最新已经到3以上了)。
  • 第三波是webpack家族的一些loader和plugin,以及rimraf用于删除生成的文件,http-server用于运行小服务器来访问生成的资源。

再添加一些脚本来帮助运行打包,这一步最终得到一个只包含单个package.json文件的项目,内容像这样:

{
    "name": "angulectron",
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "description": "Starter for electron app with angular(v6+)",
    "main": "main.js",
    "scripts": {
        "http": "http-server ./wwwroot",
        "prod": "rimraf wwwroot && yarn webpack -- --config ./webpack.config.js --open --progress --profile --content-base src/",
        "dev": "yarn webpack-dev-server -- --config ./webpack.config.dev.js --open --progress --profile --watch --content-base src/",
        "webpack": "node --max_old_space_size=4096 node_modules/webpack/bin/webpack.js",
        "webpack-dev-server": "node --max_old_space_size=4096 node_modules/webpack-dev-server/bin/webpack-dev-server.js"
    },
    "repository": {
        "type": "git",
        "url": "git+https://github.com/yitimo/angulectron.git"
    },
    "keywords": [
        "angular",
        "electron"
    ],
    "author": "yitimo <admin@yitimo.com>",
    "license": "MIT",
    "bugs": {
        "url": "https://github.com/yitimo/angulectron/issues"
    },
    "homepage": "https://github.com/yitimo/angulectron#readme",
    "devDependencies": {
        "@angular-devkit/build-optimizer": "^0.8.4",
        "@angular/cli": "^6.2.4",
        "@angular/compiler-cli": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/language-service": "^6.1.9",
        "@ngtools/webpack": "^6.2.4",
        "@types/hammerjs": "^2.0.36",
        "@types/node": "^10.11.5",
        "@types/uglify-js": "^3.0.3",
        "@types/webpack": "^4.4.14",
        "codelyzer": "^4.5.0",
        "copy-webpack-plugin": "^4.5.2",
        "css-loader": "^1.0.0",
        "file-loader": "^2.0.0",
        "html-loader": "^0.5.5",
        "html-webpack-plugin": "^3.2.0",
        "http-server": "^0.11.1",
        "mini-css-extract-plugin": "^0.4.2",
        "node-sass": "^4.9.3",
        "raw-loader": "^0.5.1",
        "rimraf": "^2.6.2",
        "sass-loader": "^7.1.0",
        "script-ext-html-webpack-plugin": "^2.0.1",
        "style-loader": "^0.23.0",
        "to-string-loader": "^1.1.5",
        "ts-loader": "^5.2.1",
        "tslint": "^5.11.0",
        "typescript": "^2.7.2",
        "webpack": "^4.19.0",
        "webpack-cli": "^3.1.0",
        "webpack-dev-server": "^3.1.8",
        "webpack-inline-manifest-plugin": "^4.0.1"
    },
    "dependencies": {
        "@angular/animations": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/common": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/compiler": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/core": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/forms": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/platform-browser": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/platform-browser-dynamic": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/platform-server": "^6.1.9",
        "@angular/router": "^6.1.9",
        "core-js": "^2.5.7",
        "rxjs": "^6.3.3",
        "zone.js": "^0.8.26"
    }
}

最简单源代码

抛开脚手架,项目真正的源代码要放到一个src目录下,本文重点不在此,所以除了入口文件外只创建最简单的源代码,只有一个根模块,根组件,以及外联的模板和样式文件,像这样:

目录结构

polyfills.ts:

import 'core-js/es7/reflect';
import 'zone.js/dist/zone';

main.ts:

import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic';
import { enableProdMode } from '@angular/core';
import { AppModule } from './app/app.module';

// webpack DefinePlugin 注入的变量,需要声明,否则编辑器会报错
declare var ENV: string;

if (ENV === 'production') {
    enableProdMode();
}
platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule);

index.html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
    <title>My App</title>
</head>
<body>
    <angulectron>Loading...</angulectron>
    <% if (isDevServer) { %><script src="/webpack-dev-server.js"></script><% } %>
</body>
</html>

app.module.ts:

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';

@NgModule({
    imports: [
        BrowserModule
    ],
    declarations: [AppComponent],
    providers: [],
    bootstrap: [AppComponent],
})
export class AppModule { }

app.component.ts:

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

@Component({
    selector: 'angulectron',
    templateUrl: 'app.component.html',
    styleUrls: ['app.component.css', 'app.component.scss']
})
export class AppComponent { }

app.component.html:

<h2>Hello !!!</h2>

app.component.css:

h2 {
    color: #CD5C5C;
}

app.component.scss:

h2 {
    font-size: 32px;
}

其中报错是因为未配置tsconfig.json,编辑器报了es7装饰器新特性的警告,所以在项目根目录新建一个tsconfig.json

{
    "compilerOptions": {
        "target": "es5",
        "module": "esnext", // 重要 可以明显减小最终打包的体积
        "moduleResolution": "node",
        "emitDecoratorMetadata": true,
        "experimentalDecorators": true,
        "allowSyntheticDefaultImports": true,
        "sourceMap": true,
        "noEmitHelpers": true,
        "importHelpers": true,
        "strictNullChecks": false,
        "lib": ["dom", "es2015"],
        "baseUrl": "./src",
        "paths": {
            "@angular/*": ["../node_modules/@angular/*"]
        }
    },
    "exclude": [
        "node_modules",
        "wwwroot"
    ]
}

webpack

webpack配置是重头戏,实际上@angular/cli生成的项目内部也使用了webpack,不过已经被封装好了使用时完全不用去关心。

基本的webpack配置为一个名为webpack.config.js的文件,文件导出一个object,这个object至少包含以下几部分:

  1. entry 指定入口文件,我们这里是main.tspolyfills.ts这两个
  2. output 指定输出的目录、名字等
  3. module.rules 配置各种loader
  4. plugins 配置各种额外规则
  5. optimization 配置资源压缩以及分包
  6. devServer 配置开发服务器

针对angular项目特有的配置项是两个loader和一个plugin,均来自于@ngtools/webpack这个包,实际上@angular/cli内部也使用了这个东西,依靠这个包才让手动配置angular项目的webpack变得简单(对比angular2刚发布的年代)。

最终一个完整的webpack配置像这样:

const path = require('path');

const DefinePlugin = require('webpack/lib/DefinePlugin');
const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');
const MiniCssExtractPlugin = require('mini-css-extract-plugin');
const AngularCompilerPlugin = require('@ngtools/webpack').AngularCompilerPlugin;
const UglifyJsPlugin = require('uglifyjs-webpack-plugin');
const ENV = 'production';

module.exports = {
    mode: ENV,
    devtool: 'source-map',
    entry: {
        polyfills: path.resolve(__dirname, './src/polyfills.ts'),
        main: path.resolve(__dirname, './src/main.ts')
    },
    output: {
        path: path.resolve(__dirname, 'wwwroot'),
        filename: '[name].[chunkhash].bundle.js',
        sourceMapFilename: '[file].map',
        chunkFilename: '[name].[chunkhash].chunk.js'
    },
    resolve: {
        extensions: ['.ts', '.js', '.json']
    },
    module: {
        rules: [
            {
                test: /\.css$/,
                use: ['to-string-loader', 'css-loader'],
                exclude: [path.resolve(__dirname, './src/styles')]
            },
            {
                test: /\.scss$/,
                use: ['to-string-loader', 'css-loader', 'sass-loader'],
                exclude: [path.resolve(__dirname, './src/styles')]
            },
            {
                test: /\.css$/,
                use: [MiniCssExtractPlugin.loader, 'css-loader'],
                include: [path.resolve(__dirname, './src/styles')]
            },
            {
                test: /\.scss$/,
                use: [MiniCssExtractPlugin.loader, 'css-loader', 'sass-loader'],
                include: [path.resolve(__dirname, './src/styles')]
            },
            {
                test: /\.html$/,
                use: ['raw-loader'],
                exclude: [path.resolve(__dirname, './src/index.html')]
            },
            {
                test: /\.(jpg|png|gif|pdf|eot|woff2?|svg|ttf)$/,
                use: 'file-loader'
            },
            {
                test: /(?:\.ngfactory\.js|\.ngstyle\.js|\.ts)$/,
                use: [{
                    loader: '@angular-devkit/build-optimizer/webpack-loader',
                    options: {
                        sourceMap: false
                    }
                }, '@ngtools/webpack']
            },
            {
                test: /\.js$/,
                use: [{
                    loader: '@angular-devkit/build-optimizer/webpack-loader',
                    options: {
                        sourceMap: false
                    }
                }]
            }
        ]
    },
    plugins: [
        new HtmlWebpackPlugin({
            template: './src/index.html',
            inject: 'body',
            xhtml: true,
            minify: true
        }),
        new DefinePlugin({
            'isDevServer': 'false',
            'ENV': JSON.stringify(ENV)
        }),
        new AngularCompilerPlugin({
            tsConfigPath: './tsconfig.json',
            entryModule: './src/app/app.module#AppModule'
        }),
        new MiniCssExtractPlugin({ filename: '[name]-[hash].css', chunkFilename: '[name]-[chunkhash].css' })
    ],
    optimization: {
        minimizer: [
            new UglifyJsPlugin({
                sourceMap: false,
                parallel: true,
                cache: path.resolve(__dirname, 'webpack-cache/uglify-cache'),
                uglifyOptions: {
                    compress: {
                        pure_getters: true,
                        passes: 2
                    },
                    output: {
                        ascii_only: true,
                        comments: false
                    }
                }
            })
        ],
        splitChunks: {
            chunks: 'all'
        }
    },
    devServer: {
        port: 4201,
        host: '127.0.0.1',
        historyApiFallback: true,
        watchOptions: {
          ignored: /node_modules/
        }
    },
    node: {
        global: true,
        crypto: 'empty',
        process: false,
        module: false,
        clearImmediate: false,
        setImmediate: false,
        fs: 'empty'
    }
}

现在执行命令yarn prod,以上配置将生成生产模式加AOT模式下的输出,并且最终代码都会压缩至最小体积,像这样:

输出

执行yarn http运行一下看看:

运行

至此纯手工最简单的angular项目就完成了。对这个小项目做几个总结:

  1. 其中的配置只针对prod + AOT模式,即不是JIT模式
  2. 对于开发环境可以再新增一个webpack.config.dev.js来配置生产环境下的webpack规则,并搭配webpack-dev-server使用(本文未完成这一步)。对于生产环境就像文中这样先yarn prod,然后扔到服务器上。
  3. @ngtools/webpackMiniCssExtractPlugin不兼容,所以注意配置exclude规则。
  4. tsconfig.json中的"module": "esnext"这一配置相比"module": "commonjs"能减少不少体积。

相关链接

  • angular-starter 一个教科书级复杂的angular启动项目,非常适合进阶观摩学习
  • angulectron 本文示例项目地址,之后会整合electron并继续完善。