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Linux下安装python 2.7

安装依赖的库

yum -y install python-devel openssl openssl-devel gcc sqlite sqlite-devel mysql-devel libxml2-devel libxslt-devel

Python

=================================================

下载python 2.7.13

www.python.org

[root@server2 ~]# mkdir /software
[root@server2 ~]# cd /software/
[root@server2 software]# wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.13/Python-2.7.13.tgz
[root@server2 software]# ll
总用量 36852
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17076672 12月 18 04:21 Python-2.7.13.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20656090 1月  17 16:07 Python-3.5.3.tgz

解压文件

[root@server2 software]# tar -zxf Python-2.7.13.tgz

进入目录

[root@server2 software]# cd Python-2.7.13

编译安装

[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python2.7 --with-threads --enable-shared
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# make && make altinstall

备份旧python相关命令

===> 有些版本/usr/bin/目录下不存在pip 忽略下面第一行命令即可
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# mv /usr/bin/pip /usr/bin/pip_old  
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# mv /usr/bin/easy_install /usr/bin/easy_install_old
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# mv /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/python_old

新版本python命令做软连接,快捷使用

[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so /usr/lib
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so.1.0 /usr/lib
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/bin/python2.7 /usr/bin/python
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so /usr/lib64
[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so.1.0 /usr/lib64

测试python是否可以正常使用

[root@server2 ~]# python
Python 2.7.13 (default, Apr 11 2017, 11:14:36) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-18)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>

安装pip

下载最新版的pip,然后安装

[root@server2 Python-2.7.13]# cd /software/
[root@server2 software]# wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
[root@server2 software]# python get-pip.py

查找pip的位置

[root@server2 software]# find / -name pip
/usr/local/python2.7/bin/pip

找到pip2.7的路径,为其创建软链作为系统默认的启动版本

[root@server2 software]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/bin/pip /usr/bin/pip

测试pip是否可用

[root@server2 software]# pip install Pillow
Collecting Pillow
  Downloading Pillow-4.1.0-cp27-cp27m-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (5.7MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 5.7MB 129kB/s 
Collecting olefile (from Pillow)
  Downloading olefile-0.44.zip (74kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 81kB 541kB/s 
Building wheels for collected packages: olefile
  Running setup.py bdist_wheel for olefile ... done
  Stored in directory: /root/.cache/pip/wheels/20/58/49/cc7bd00345397059149a10b0259ef38b867935ea2ecff99a9b
Successfully built olefile
Installing collected packages: olefile, Pillow
Successfully installed Pillow-4.1.0 olefile-0.44

安装easy_install

下载最新版的easy_install,然后安装

[root@server2 software]# wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/ez_setup.py
[root@server2 software]# python ez_setup.py

找到easy_install的路径,为其创建软链作为系统默认的启动版本

[root@server2 software]# ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/bin/easy_install /usr/bin/easy_install

测试easy_install是否可用

[root@server2 software]# easy_install beautifulsoup4
Searching for beautifulsoup4
Reading https://pypi.python.org/simple/beautifulsoup4/
Downloading https://pypi.python.org/packages/9b/a5/c6fa2d08e6c671103f9508816588e0fb9cec40444e8e72993f3d4c325936/beautifulsoup4-4.5.3.tar.gz#md5=937e0df0d699a1237646f38fd567f0c6
Best match: beautifulsoup4 4.5.3
Processing beautifulsoup4-4.5.3.tar.gz
Writing /tmp/easy_install-OSpCW5/beautifulsoup4-4.5.3/setup.cfg
Running beautifulsoup4-4.5.3/setup.py -q bdist_egg --dist-dir /tmp/easy_install-OSpCW5/beautifulsoup4-4.5.3/egg-dist-tmp-m3PXo5
zip_safe flag not set; analyzing archive contents...
Moving beautifulsoup4-4.5.3-py2.7.egg to /usr/local/python2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages
Adding beautifulsoup4 4.5.3 to easy-install.pth file

Installed /usr/local/python2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/beautifulsoup4-4.5.3-py2.7.egg
Processing dependencies for beautifulsoup4
Finished processing dependencies for beautifulsoup4

yum 安装工具只支持系统自带的python版本, 修改配置文件使其可正常使用

查看原版本python

[root@server2 software]# ll /usr/bin/python*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   34 4月  11 11:20 /usr/bin/python -> /usr/local/python2.7/bin/python2.7
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root    6 2月  15 14:33 /usr/bin/python2 -> python
-rwxr-xr-x 2 root root 9032 8月  18 2016 /usr/bin/python2.6  ==> 这个就是系统自带的python 
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1418 8月  18 2016 /usr/bin/python2.6-config
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   16 4月  11 10:47 /usr/bin/python-config -> python2.6-config
-rwxr-xr-x 2 root root 9032 8月  18 2016 /usr/bin/python_old

修改配置文件 /usr/bin/yum

#!/usr/bin/python  ===>  修改为  #!/usr/bin/python2.6

测试yum是否可用

[root@server2 software]# yum -y install python-devel
已加载插件:fastestmirror, security
设置安装进程
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * epel: mirrors.aliyun.com
包 python-devel-2.6.6-66.el6_8.x86_64 已安装并且是最新版本
无须任何处理

好了,大功告成。

优化

编写一键安装python2.7的脚本

由于Centos 6.x的系统默认都是python2.6 ,如果服务器需要用2.7环境的话每台都得手动操作升级,工作量比较大, 编写脚本提升效率。(Centos 7.x版本的默认的python都是2.7.5版本)

创建用于存放python脚本的目录

[root@server2 software]# mkdir /script/python/
[root@server2 software]# cd /script/python/

由于国外python网站下载python安装包缓慢,可以提前下载下来,和install_py27.sh放在一起,在脚本中直接解压本地文件进行安装,我已经上传到网盘
点击我下载

开始编写脚本 install_py27.sh

#!/bin/sh 
# __author__ = 'junxi'

# This script is used by fast installed python2.7 ......
# write by 2017/04/11

echo "##############start run install for python2.7 script############"
yum -y install python-devel openssl openssl-devel gcc sqlite sqlite-devel mysql-devel libxml2-devel libxslt-devel
mkdir /software
mv Python-2.7.13.tgz /software
cd /software
tar -zxf Python-2.7.13.tgz
cd Python-2.7.13/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python2.7 --with-threads --enable-shared
make
make altinstall
mv /usr/bin/pip /usr/bin/pip_old
mv /usr/bin/easy_install /usr/bin/easy_install_old
mv /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/python_old
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so /usr/lib
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so.1.0 /usr/lib
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/bin/python2.7 /usr/bin/python
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so /usr/lib64
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/lib/libpython2.7.so.1.0 /usr/lib64
cd /software
wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
python get-pip.py
ln -s /usr/local/python2.7/bin/pip /usr/bin/pip
echo "############更换pip源为国内淘宝源##########"
mkdir /root/.pip/
touch /root/.pip/pip.conf
cat >> /root/.pip/pip.conf << EOF
[global]
index-url=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/ 

[install]
trusted-host=mirrors.aliyun.com
EOF

pip install Pillow
sed -i 's#\/usr/bin/python#\/usr/bin/python2.6#g' /usr/bin/yum
yum -y install python-devel
echo 'the install script is the end......'

把Python-2.7.13.tgz文件和install_py27.sh脚本下载下来,放在同一个目录下:
运行下面命令进行安装

/bin/sh install_py27.sh

安装完成后执行python查看版本